Cyril and Methodios
- Saints, apostles to the Slavs (q.v.), creators of the Glagolitic (q.v.) alphabet. Cyril was the monastic name taken by Constantine, sometimes referred to as Constantine the Philosopher because of his fame as a teacher of that subject. Cyril and his brother Methodios (q.v.) grew up in Thessalonike (q.v.) and they spoke the dialect that Slavs around the city spoke. Methodios had been a governor (archon) of a Slav principality in Macedonia (q.v.). Cyril was a brilliant linguist who had previously been sent on a diplomatic mission to the Khazars (q.v.). Their mission to Moravia (q.v.) in 863 was requested of Michael III (q.v.) by prince Rastislav. Cyril, with the help of Methodios, invented a Slavonic (Glagolitic [q.v.]) alphabet, which he used to translate the liturgy of John Chrysostom (q.v.) and the New Testament. Ultimately, the Moravian mission failed in the face of intensive pressure from the Frankish clergy in Moravia, and because of Cyril's premature death in Rome in 869. However, Methodios continued the work of translation, and his disciples in Bulgaria (q.v.) invented another alphabet for the Bulgars called Cyrillic (qq.v.), adapted from the Greek alphabet. Most important is the long-term effect of their work in attracting much of the Slavic world to Byzantine Christianity, and, thus, to Byzantine culture and civilization.
Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . John H. Rosser .
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Methodios — See Cyril and Methodios … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
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Kliment of Ohrid — Missionary to the Slavs (q.v.), Bulgarian priest, teacher, writer, saint. He was a companion to Naum of Ohrid (q.v.) and a disciple of Cyril and Methodios (qq.v.), whom he accompanied to Moravia (q.v.) in 863. In 886 he was sent by Boris I to… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
Cyrillic — The oldest manuscripts in Church Slavonic (q.v.) are in two different scripts, Glagolitic (q.v.) and Cyrillic. Cyril and Methodios (q.v.) invented the former, but the latter script, which incorrectly bears Cyril s name, is thought to be an… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
Naum of Ohrid — Missionary to the Slavs, Bulgarian priest, translator, saint. He accompanied Cyril and Methodios to Moravia (qq.v.) in 863, as did Kliment of Ohrid (q.v.). After Methodios s death in 885, he went with Kliment to Bulgaria (q.v.) where he… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
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Bulgaria — Established in 681 by Asparuch (q.v.), Bulgaria became the first independent state on Byzantine soil to be recognized by Byzantium (q.v.). The Bulgars, with their capital at Pliska (qq.v.), ruled over a large indigenous population of Slavs… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
Boris I — Khan of the Bulgars (qq.v.) from 852 889 who received baptism from Byzantium (q.v.) in 864. He took the name of Michael, after his godfather Michael III (q.v.). However, he did this only after Michael III moved an army and fleet to the borders … Historical dictionary of Byzantium